Surging battery demand
Demand for lithium-ion batteries estimated to grow 500% in the next 10 years.
Unsustainable supply chain
The number of miles that materials must move before they reach a battery cell factory.
Gap in capacity
The world is estimated to need 300 terawatts of battery capacity to be fully sustainable.
Cathode and anode, the two core components in a lithium-ion battery, aren’t produced in North America today.
As a result, U.S. cell manufacturers will spend more than $150B overseas on these materials by 2030.
Collection, storage, & material-specific recycling
Hydrometallurgical metal refining
Anode & cathode battery components